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 The MODEL Procedure

## Example 14.10: Systems of Differential Equations

The following is a simplified reaction scheme for the competitive inhibitors with recombinant human renin (Morelock et al. 1995).

Figure 14.82: Competitive Inhibition of Recombinant Human Renin

In Figure 14.82, E= enzyme, D= probe, and I= inhibitor.

The differential equations describing this reaction scheme are

For this system, the initial values for the concentrations are derived from equilibrium considerations (as a function of parameters) or are provided as known values.

The experiment used to collect the data was carried out in two ways; pre-incubation (type='disassoc') and no pre-incubation (type='assoc'). The data also contain repeated measurements. The data contain values for fluorescence F, which is a function of concentration. Since there are no direct data for the concentrations, all the differential equations are simulated dynamically.

The SAS statements used to fit this model are

      proc model data=fit;

parameters qf  = 2.1e8
qb  = 4.0e9
k2f = 1.8e5
k2r = 2.1e-3
l   = 0;

k1f = 6.85e6;
k1r = 3.43e-4;

/* Initial values for concentrations */
control dt 5.0e-7
et 5.0e-8
it 8.05e-6;

/* Association initial values --------------*/
if type = 'assoc' and time=0 then
do;
ed = 0;
a = 1;
b = -(&it+&et+(k2r/k2f));
c = &it*&et;
ei = (-b-(((b**2)-(4*a*c))**.5))/(2*a);
d = &dt-ed;
i = &it-ei;
e = &et-ed-ei;
end;

/* Disassociation initial values ----------*/
if type = 'disassoc' and time=0 then
do;
ei = 0;
a = 1;
b = -(&dt+&et+(&k1r/&k1f));
c = &dt*&et;
ed = (-b-(((b**2)-(4*a*c))**.5))/(2*a);
d = &dt-ed;
i = &it-ei;
e = &et-ed-ei;
end;

if time ne 0 then
do;
dert.d = k1r* ed  - k1f *e *d;

dert.ed = k1f* e *d - k1r*ed;

dert.e = k1r* ed - k1f* e * d  + k2r * ei - k2f * e *i;

dert.ei = k2f* e *i - k2r * ei;

dert.i = k2r * ei - k2f* e *i;

end;

/* L - offset between curves  */
if type = 'disassoc' then
F = (qf*(d-ed)) + (qb*ed) -L;
else
F = (qf*(d-ed)) + (qb*ed);

Fit F / method=marquardt;
run;


This estimation requires the repeated simulation of a system of 42 differential equations (5 base differential equations and 36 differential equations to compute the partials with respect to the parameters).

The results of the estimation are shown in Output 14.10.1.

Output 14.10.1: Kinetics Estimation

 The MODEL Procedure

 Nonlinear OLS Parameter Estimates Parameter Estimate Approx Std Err t Value Approx Pr > |t| qf 2.0413E8 681443 299.55 <.0001 qb 4.2263E9 9133179 462.74 <.0001 k2f 6451229 867011 7.44 <.0001 k2r 0.007808 0.00103 7.55 <.0001 l -5.76981 0.4138 -13.94 <.0001

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