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SAS/GRAPH Software: Reference

Conventions Used in This Book

This section explains the conventions this book uses for text, SAS language syntax, and file and library references. The book uses the following terms in discussing syntax:
keyword is a literal that is a primary part of the SAS language. (A literal must be spelled exactly as shown, although it can be entered in uppercase or lowercase letters.) Keywords in this book are procedure names, statement names, macro names, routine names, and function names.
argument is an element that follows a keyword. It is either literal, or it is user-supplied. It has a built-in value (for example, NODISPLAY), or it has a value assigned to it (for example, COLOR=text-color).

Arguments that you must use are required arguments. Other arguments are optional arguments, or simply options.

value is an element that follows an equal sign. It assigns a value to an argument. It may be a literal, or it may be a user-supplied value.
parameter is a value assigned to an argument that itself takes a value, for example, the COLOR= parameter of the LABEL= option in a LEGEND statement, as shown in the following statement:
legend label=(color=blue);

Syntax Conventions

Type styles have special meanings when used in the presentation of SAS/GRAPH software syntax in this book. The following list explains the style conventions for the syntax sections:
UPPERCASE identifies SAS keywords such as the names of statements and procedures (for example, PROC GCHART). Also identifies arguments and values that are literals, (for example, NOLEGEND and LABEL=NONE).
italic identifies arguments or values that you supply. Items in italic can represent user-supplied values that are either

  • nonliteral values assigned to an argument (for example, axis-color in COLOR=axis-color)

  • nonliteral arguments (for example, VBAR chart-variable. . . ; ).

In addition, an item in italics can be the generic name for a list of arguments or parameters from which the user can choose (for example, appearance-options).

The following symbols are used to indicate other syntax conventions:
< > (angle brackets) identify optional arguments. Any argument not enclosed in angle brackets is required.
| (vertical bar) indicates that you can choose one value from a group. Values separated by bars are mutually exclusive.
. . . (ellipsis) indicates that the argument following the ellipsis can be repeated any number of times (plot-request <. . . plot-request-n>, for example). If the ellipsis and the following argument are enclosed in angle brackets, they are optional. In SAS/GRAPH software, an ellipsis also indicates a range from which a value is selected (LINE=1 . . . 46, for example).

The following examples illustrate the syntax conventions described in this section. These examples contain selected syntax elements, not complete syntax.

PROC GANNO ANNOTATE=Annotate-data-set

SYMBOL <1 . . . 99>

HBAR chart-variable< . . . chart-variable-n>

When you are using an option, a statement, or a procedure whose syntax shows arguments or values in italics, you must supply the argument or value. When the argument or value is a font, color, or variable name, SAS/GRAPH software expects valid font names, color names, and variable names. Consider the following four syntax samples:




PIE chart-variable < . . . chart-variable-n>;

Conventions for Examples and Output

Most of the chapters in this book include examples that illustrate some of the features of a procedure or its statements. Each example contains

The output that is shown for the examples in this book was generated in an HP-UX operating environment, using the default XCOLOR display device. If you are using a different operating environment or display device, you may need to make some minor adjustments to the example programs.

The dimensions of the graphics output area vary across devices and when using the GRAPH windows. The dimensions may affect aspects of the graphics output - for example, the appearance of axes or the position of graphics elements that use explicit coordinates in units other than percent. You may need to adjust the dimensions of your graphics output area or the size of graphics elements to correct any differences you see. Most of the examples in this book used a GOPTIONS statement to set the graphics output area to 7 inches by 5 inches, which proved to be a good dimension for generating output displays for this book:

goptions hsize=7in vsize=5in;
These HSIZE= and VSIZE= settings are not shown in the example code and are not necessary for generating the output, but you may want to use similar settings if your output looks different from the output that is shown in the book.

The examples use explicit color specifications, and the example code contains the names of colors that approximate the colors you see in this book. The colors displayed on your device may differ from those shown in the examples because of differences in device capabilities.

The examples in this book do not specify actual names for the file structures used for SAS data libraries or for external files. This is because different operating environments and different computing installations use different conventions for naming files and directories. Instead, the examples refer to storage locations generically. For example, a LIBNAME statement to assign the libref STORE is shown as

libname store 'SAS-data-library';

For SAS-data-library, you should supply the complete specification for the storage location (for example, directory, MVS data set, or CMS minidisk) of the data library, using the form required by your operating environment.

Similarly, a FILENAME statement to assign the fileref MYFILE is shown as

filename myfile 'external-file';

For external-file, you should supply a fully qualified filename, using the form required for your operating environment.

If you are unsure of the requirements at your site, see your SAS Software Consultant for more information.

Some examples explicitly specify the font and height for text, the units, and border in procedure statements. For those examples that do not include explicit specifications, the following graphics options were used to produce uniform output:
RESET=GLOBAL cancels all currently defined AXIS, LEGEND, FOOTNOTE, TITLE, PATTERN, and SYMBOL definitions.
GUNIT=PCT specifies the unit specification for options is in percent, unless explicitly specified in another SAS statement.
FTEXT=SWISSB specifies that all text uses the SWISSB font, unless explicitly specified in another SAS statement.
HTITLE=6 specifies that the first title line is 6 percent of the height of the graphics output area, unless explicitly specified in another SAS statement.
HTEXT=3 specifies that text is 3 percent of the height of the graphics output area, unless explicitly specified.
BORDER causes a border to be drawn around the graphics output area. The border, which appears in most output, represents the boundaries of the graphics output area, whether or not a border is drawn by the program.

Note:    The way that output is presented on your device depends on the environment in which you are running SAS/GRAPH software.  [cautionend]

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Copyright 1999 by SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. All rights reserved.