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SAS/GRAPH Software: Reference


absolute coordinates coordinates measured from the origin of the coordinate system. In two-dimensional graphs, the origin is (0,0). In three-dimensional graphs, the origin is (0,0,0). See also relative coordinates.
aspect ratio the ratio of width to height (that is, width divided by height) in an output area such as a display, plotter, or film recorder. In SAS/GRAPH software, the ASPECT= graphics option simulates a change in the aspect ratio of the display, causing fonts and circles to be compressed horizontally or vertically or both.
axis a one-dimensional line representing the zero point on a scale used to plot values of x,y, or z coordinates. In SAS/GRAPH software, in two dimensions, the X axis represents the horizontal plane, and the Y axis represents the vertical plane. In three dimensions, the X axis represents width, the Y axis represents depth, and the Z axis represents height. See also Cartesian coordinate system. The term axis may also refer collectively to the axis line, the major and minor tick marks, the major tick mark values, and the axis label.
axis area an area bounded by axes. In SAS/GRAPH software, this area may be enclosed by an axis frame. See also frame.
baseline in a font, the imaginary line upon which the characters rest.
block map a three-dimensional map that uses blocks of varying heights to represent the value of a variable for each map area.
border in SAS/GRAPH software, the line drawn around the entire graphics output area. This area includes the title and footnote areas as well as the procedure output area. See also frame.
boundary in the GMAP procedure, a separating line or point that distinguishes between two or more unit areas or segments.
BY group all observations with the same values for all BY variables.
BY-group processing the process of using the BY statement to process observations that are ordered, grouped, or indexed according to the values of one or more variables. Many SAS procedures and the DATA step support BY-group processing.
BY variable a variable named in a BY statement whose values define groups of observations to process.
Cartesian coordinate system the two- or three-dimensional coordinate system in which perpendicular axes meet at the origin (0,0) or (0,0,0). Typically, Cartesian coordinate axes are called X, Y, and Z. See also axis.
Cartesian coordinates values that locate a point in two- or three-dimensional space. Each value represents units measured along an X, Y, or Z axis. See also Cartesian coordinate system.
capline the highest point of a normal uppercase letter. In some fonts, the capline may be above the top of the letter to allow room for an accent.
catalog See SAS catalog.
catalog entry See entry type and SAS catalog entry.
cell a unit of measure defined by the number of rows and the number of columns in the graphics output area. See also aspect ratio.
CGM an abbreviation for computer graphics metafile. A CGM is a graphics output file written in the internationally recognized format for describing computer graphics images. This standardization allows any image in a CGM to be imported and exported among different systems without error or distortion.
character string one or more alphanumeric or other keyboard characters or both.
character value a value that can contain alphabetic characters, numeric characters 0 through 9, and other special characters. See also character variable.
character variable a variable whose values can consist of alphabetic and special characters as well as numeric characters.
chart a graph in which graphics elements (bars, pie slices, and so on) show the magnitude of a statistic. The graphics elements can represent one data value or a range of data values.
chart statistic the statistical value calculated for the chart variable: frequency, cumulative frequency, percentage, cumulative percentage, sum, or mean.
chart variable a variable in the input data set whose values are categories of data represented by bars, blocks, slices, or spines.
choropleth map a two-dimensional map that uses color and fill pattern combinations to represent different categories or levels of magnitude.
class variable in some SAS procedures, a variable used to group, or classify, data. Class variables can be character or numeric. Class variables can have continuous values, but they typically have a few discrete values that define the classifications of the variable.
classification variable See class variable.
CMYK a color-coding scheme that specifies a color in terms of levels of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black components. The levels of each component range from 0 to 255. See also HLS, HSV, and RGB.
color map a table that is used to translate the original colors in graphics output to different colors when replaying graphics output using the GREPLAY procedure. The table is contained in a catalog entry.
color, predefined one of the set of colors for which SAS/GRAPH software defines and recognizes names, for example, BLACK, BLUE, and CYAN.
color, user-defined a color expressed in CMYK, HLS, HSV, RGB, or gray-scale format. See also CMYK, HLS, HSV, RGB, and gray scale.
colors list the list of foreground colors available for the graphics output. The colors list is either the default list established from the device entry or the list established from the colors specified with the COLORS= graphics option.
computer graphics metafile See CGM.
confidence limits the upper and lower values of a confidence interval. There is a percentage of confidence (typically 95%) that the true value of the parameter being estimated lies within the interval.
contour plot a three-variable plot that uses line styles or patterns to represent levels of magnitude of z corresponding to x and y coordinates.
coordinate system the context in which to interpret coordinates. Coordinate systems vary according to their origin, limits, and units. See also Cartesian coordinate system.
coordinates the values representing the location of a data point or a graphics element along the X, Y, and Z axes. Coordinate values are measured from the origin of the coordinate system.
data area the portion of the graphics output area in which data values are displayed. In the Annotate facility, the data area defines a coordinate system. In plots and bar charts, the data area is bounded by axes; in choropleth maps, the data area is bounded by the edge of the unit areas. See also graphics output area, procedure output area, and coordinate system.
data value a unit of character or numeric information in a SAS data set. A data value represents one variable in an observation. In the rectangular structure of a SAS data set, intersection of a row and a column.
date value See SAS date value.
default (1) The setting of a value, parameter, or argument used by the SAS System if the user does not specify a setting.

(2) the value, parameter, or option setting used by the SAS System if the user specifies no particular setting.

density value a value assigned to each observation in a map data set reflecting the amount of detail (resolution) contributed by the observation.
dependent variable a variable whose value is determined by the value of another variable or set of variables.
device driver a routine that generates the specific machine-language commands needed to display graphics output on a particular device. SAS/GRAPH device drivers take device-independent graphics information produced by SAS/GRAPH procedures and create the commands required to produce the graph on the particular device.
device entry a SAS catalog entry that stores the values of device parameters (or the characteristics) that are used with a particular output device.
device map a catalog entry used to convert the SAS/GRAPH internal encoding for one or more characters to the device-specific encoding needed to display the character(s) in hardware text on a particular graphics output device. See also hardware character set.
device parameter a value in a device entry that defines a default behavior or characteristic of a device driver. Some device parameters can be overridden by graphics options. See also graphics option.
display the area of the monitor that displays what the software presents to you.
display manager See SAS Display Manager System.
entry type a characteristic of a SAS catalog entry that identifies its structure and attributes to the SAS System. When you create an entry, the SAS System automatically assigns the entry type as part of the name.
export to put a SAS catalog entry containing graphics output into a format that can be moved to another software product.
fileref a name temporarily assigned to an external file or to an aggregate storage location that identifies it to the SAS System. You assign a fileref with a FILENAME statement or with an operating system command.
fill pattern a design of parallel or crosshatched lines, solid colors, or empty space used to fill an area in a graph.
font a complete set of all the characters of the same design and style. The characters in a font can be figures or symbols as well as alphanumeric characters. See also type style.
font maximum in the GFONT procedure, the highest vertical coordinate in a font.
font minimum in the GFONT procedure, the lowest vertical coordinate in a font.
font units in the GFONT procedure, units defined by the range of coordinates specified in the font data set. For example, a font in which the vertical coordinates range from 10 to 100 has 90 font units.
font, hardware a font stored in an output device. See also font, software.
font, software a font in which the characters are drawn by graphics software. See also font, hardware.
format an instruction the SAS System uses to display or write each value of a variable. Some formats are supplied by SAS software. Other formats can be written by the user with the FORMAT procedure in base SAS software or with SAS/TOOLKIT software.
frame a box enclosing a group of graphics elements. In GSLIDE procedure output, the frame encloses the procedure output area. In GPLOT, GCHART, and GCONTOUR procedure output, the frame encloses the axis area. In a legend, the frame encloses the legend label and entries. See also border.
global statement a SAS statement that you can specify anywhere in a SAS program.
graph a visual representation of data showing the variation of a variable in comparison to one or more other variables.
graphics element a discrete visual part of a picture. For example, a bar in a chart and a plot's axis label are both graphics elements.
graphics device See graphics output device.
graphics option a value specified in a GOPTIONS statement that controls some attribute of the graphics output. The values specified remain in effect only for the duration of the SAS session. Some graphics options override device parameters.
graphics output output from a graphics program that can be stored as a catalog entry of type GRSEG, or as a graphics stream file. Graphics output can be displayed or printed on a graphics output device. See also graphics output device and graphics stream file (GSF).
graphics output area the area of a graphics output device where the graphics output is displayed or drawn. Typically, the graphics output area occupies the full drawing area of the device, but the dimensions of the graphics output area can be changed with graphics options or device parameters. See also procedure output area and graphics output device.
graphics output device any terminal, printer, or other output device capable of displaying or producing graphics output. See also graphics output.
graphics stream file (GSF) a file containing device-dependent graphics commands from a SAS/GRAPH device driver. This file can be sent to a graphics device or to other software packages.
gray scale a color-coding scheme that specifies a color in terms of gray components. Gray-scale color codes are commonly used with some laser printers and PostScript devices.
grid request in the G3GRID procedure, the request specified in a GRID statement that identifies the horizontal variables that identify the x-y plane and one or more z variables for the interpolation.
group variable a variable in the input data set used to categorize chart variable values into groups.
GSF See graphics stream file (GSF).
HLS a color-coding scheme that specifies a color in terms of its hue, lightness, and saturation components. Hue is the color, lightness is the percentage of white, and saturation is the attribute of a color that determines its relative strength and its departure from gray. Lightness and saturation added to the hue produce a specific shade. See also CMYK, HSV, and RGB.
HSV (or HSB) a color-coding scheme that specifies a color in terms of its hue, saturation, and value (or brightness) components. Hue is the color, saturation is the attribute of a color that determines its relative strength and its departure from gray, and value or brightness is its departure from black. See also CMYK, HLS, and RGB.
identification variable a variable common to both the map data set and the response data set that the GMAP procedure uses to associate each pair of map coordinates and each response value with a unique map area.
import (1) to read a computer graphics metafile (CGM) and store the graphics output in a SAS catalog. Use the GIMPORT procedure to import the CGM. (2) to restore a SAS transport file to its original form (a SAS data library, a SAS catalog, or a SAS data set) in the format appropriate to the host operating system. Use the CIMPORT procedure to import a SAS transport file created by the CPORT procedure.
independent variable a variable that does not depend on the value of another variable; in a two-dimensional plot, the independent variable is usually plotted on the x (horizontal) axis.
interpolate to estimate values between two or more known values.
justify to position text in relation to the left or right margin or the center of the line.
key map a SAS catalog entry used to translate the codes generated by the keys on a keyboard into their corresponding SAS/GRAPH internal character encoding. See also device map.
label (1) in the AXIS and LEGEND statements and GPLOT and GCHART procedures, the text that names the variable associated with an axis, a legend, or a bubble in a bubble plot. By default, this text is the name of a variable or of a label previously assigned with a LABEL statement. The text of a label also can be specified with the LABEL= option. (2) in special cases of pie charts and star charts in the GCHART procedure, the midpoint value and the value of the chart statistic for a slice or spine. (3) in the Annotate facility, the text displayed by the LABEL function or macro.
latitude the angular measure between the equator and the circle of parallel on which a point lies.
legend refers collectively to the legend value, the legend value description, the legend label, and the legend frame.
libref the name temporarily associated with a SAS data library. For example, in the name SASUSERS.ACCOUNTS, the name SASUSER is the libref. You assign a libref with a LIBNAME statement or with operating system control language. See also first-level name.
longitude the angular measure between the reference meridian and the plane intersecting both poles and a point. The reference meridian, called the prime meridian, is assigned a longitude of 0, and other longitude values are measured from there in appropriate angular units (degrees or radians, for example).
major tick marks the points on an axis that mark the major divisions of the axis scale. See also minor tick marks.
map a graphic representation of an area, often a geographic area, but also any other area of any size. See also device map and key map.
map area a polygon or group of polygons on a map, for example, a state, province, or country. In a map data set, a map area consists of all the observations with the same values for the identification variable or variables. A map area and a unit area are the same things. See also identification variable.
map data set a SAS data set that contains information the GMAP procedure uses to draw a map. Each observation contains variables whose values are the x,y coordinates of a point on the boundary of a map area, and an identification variable whose value identifies the map area to which the point belongs.
meridian an imaginary circle of constant longitude around the surface of the earth perpendicular to the equator. See also parallel.
midpoint a value that represents one data value or the middle of a range of data values. When a midpoint represents a range of values, the algorithm used to calculate it depends on the procedure.
minor tick marks the divisions of the axis scale that fall between major tick marks. See also major tick marks.
needle plot a plot in which a vertical line connects each data point to the horizontal axis (two dimensions) or the horizontal plane (three dimensions).
numeric variable a variable that can contain only numeric values. By default, the SAS System stores all numeric variables in floating-point representation.
observation a row in a SAS data set. An observation is a collection of data values associated with a single entity, such as a customer or state. Each observation contains one data value for each variable. See also variable.
offset (1) in a legend, the distance between the edge of the legend or the edge of the legend frame and the axis frame or the border surrounding the graphics output area. (2) on an axis, the distance from the origin to either the first major tick mark or the midpoint of the first bar, or the distance from the last major tickmark or the midpoint of the last bar to the end of the axis.
origin (1) in a three-dimensional coordinate system, the point at which the X, Y, and Z axes intersect, defined by the coordinates (0,0,0). In a two-dimensional coordinate system, the point at which the X and Y axes intersect, defined by the coordinates (0,0). (2) in the AXIS statement, the origin is the point at which the axis line begins (the left end of the horizontal axis or the bottom of the vertical axis). In the LEGEND statement, the origin is the location of the lower-left corner of the legend. (3) in the graphics output area, the lower-left corner.
palette the range of colors that can be generated on a graphics device. See also colors list.
panel in the GREPLAY procedure, a part of the template in which one or more pictures can be displayed. A template can contain one or more panels.
parallel an imaginary circle of constant latitude around the surface of the earth parallel to the equator. See also meridian.
pattern type the set of fill patterns that are valid for a particular type of graph. The PATTERN statement supports three pattern types: bar and block patterns, map and plot patterns, and pie and star patterns. See also fill pattern.
pen mounts on a pen plotter, the holders for the drawing pens.
pie chart a chart made up of a circle divided by radial lines used to display the relative contribution of each part to the whole.
plot a graph showing the relationship between variables. The coordinates of each point on the graph represent the values you plot. See also coordinates.
plot line the line joining the data points in a plot.
plotter a class of graphics devices that typically use pens to draw hardcopy output.
polygon a closed, geometric figure bounded by lines or arcs. Polygons can be filled in to represent a surface.
polygon font a font in which the characters are drawn with enclosed areas that can be filled or empty. See also stroked font.
prism map a three-dimensional map that uses prisms (polyhedrons with two parallel surfaces) of varying height to indicate the ordinal magnitude of a response variable.
procedure output area the portion of the graphics output area where the output from a graphics procedure is displayed. See also graphics output area and data area.
projection a two-dimensional map representation of unit areas on the surface of a sphere, for example, geographic regions on the surface of the Earth.
regression analysis an analysis of the nature of the relationship between two or more variables, expressed as a mathematical function. On a scatter plot, this relationship is diagrammed as a line drawn through data points. A straight line indicates simple regression; a curve indicates a higher-order regression.
relative coordinates the coordinates measured from a point other than the origin, usually the endpoint of the last graphics element drawn. See also absolute coordinates.
relative move a move that repositions the graphics element by a specified distance from its current location. See also absolute move.
replay to display graphics output that is stored in a catalog entry.
response data set a SAS data set the GMAP procedure uses that contains data values associated with map areas and one or more identification variables. See also identification variable, response values, and response variable.
response levels the individual values or ranges of values into which the GMAP or GCHART procedure divides the response variable. See also midpoint.
response values values of a response variable that the GMAP procedure represents on a map as different pattern/color combinations, or as raised map areas (prisms), spikes, or blocks of different heights. The GCHART procedure represents response values as bars, slices, spines, or blocks. See also midpoint.
response variable the SAS data set variable in a response data set the GMAP procedure uses that contains data values associated with a map area. Response variables used by the GCHART procedure contain data values associated with bars, slices, spines, or blocks. See also chart variable, response data set, response levels, and response values.
RGB a color-coding scheme that specifies a color in terms of levels of red, green, and blue components. The levels of each component range from 0 to 255. See also CMYK, HLS, and HSV.
rotate in the graphics editor, to turn a graphics object about its axis.
RUN group in SAS procedures, a set of statements ending with a RUN statement.
SAS catalog a SAS file that stores many different kinds of information in smaller units called catalog entries. A single SAS catalog can contain several different types of catalog entries.
SAS catalog entry a separate storage unit within a SAS catalog. Each entry has an entry type that identifies its purpose to the SAS System. See also entry type.
SAS data library a collection of one or more SAS files that are recognized by the SAS System and that are referenced and stored as a unit. Each file is a member of the library.
SAS data set descriptor information and its related data values organized as a table of observations and variables that can be processed by the SAS System. A SAS data set can be either a SAS data file or a SAS data view.
SAS date value an integer representing a date in the SAS System. The integer represents the number of days between January 1, 1960, and another specified date. (For example, the SAS date value 366 represents the calendar date January 1, 1961.)
SAS Display Manager System an interactive, windowing interface to SAS System software. Display manager commands can be issued by typing them on the command line, pressing function keys, or selecting items from the PMENU facility. Within one session, many different tasks can be accomplished, including preparing and submitting programs, viewing and printing results, and debugging and resubmitting programs.
scatter plot a two- or three-dimensional plot showing the joint variation of two (or three) variables from a group of observations. The coordinates of each point in the plot correspond to the data values for a single observation.
segment in the GMAP procedure, a polygon that is a part of a unit area consisting of more than one polygon. For example, consider a map of Hawaii. The representation of the single unit area (the state) consists of a group of individual segments (the islands), each of which is a separate polygon. In the GFONT procedure, a segment is a single continuous line that forms part of all of a character or symbol.
software font See font, software.
spine a line on a star chart used to represent the relative value of the chart statistic for a midpoint. Spines are drawn outward from the center of the chart.
spline a method of interpolation in which a smooth line or surface connects data points.
standard deviation a statistical measure of the variability of a group of data values. This measure, which is the most widely used measure of the dispersion of a frequency distribution, is equal to the positive square root of the variance.
string See character string.
stroked font a font in which the characters are drawn with discrete line segments or circular arcs. See also polygon font.
subgroup variable the variable in the input data set for a chart that is used to proportionally fill areas of the bars or blocks on the chart.
summary variable a variable in an input data set whose values the GCHART procedure totals or averages to produce the sum or mean statistics, respectively.
surface map a three-dimensional map that uses spikes of varying heights to indicate levels of relative magnitude.
surface plot a three-dimensional graph that displays a grid-like surface formed by the values of the vertical (Z) variable plotted on a plane specified by the X and Y variables.
template in the GREPLAY procedure, a framework that enables you to display one or more pictures on a page.
text string See character string.
tilt angle the measure in degrees from the horizontal axis to the major axis of an object.
type style a typeface design and its variations, for example, Swiss, Swiss Bold, and Swiss Italic. See also font.
unit area See map area.
user-definable colors the colors that can be defined using SAS color names, or CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black), RGB (red, green, blue), HLS (hue, lightness, saturation), HSV (hue, saturation, value), or gray-scale color equivalents.
value the text that labels a major tick mark on an axis. Also, in a legend, a value is a line, bar, or shape that the legend explains.
variable a column in a SAS data set. A variable is a set of data values that describe a given characteristic across all observations. See also macro variable.
variable type the classification of a variable as either numeric or character. Type is an attribute of SAS variables.
WORK data library the SAS data library automatically defined by the SAS System at the beginning of each SAS session or SAS job. It contains SAS files that are temporary by default. When the libref USER is not defined, the SAS System uses WORK as the default library for SAS files created with one-level names.
X axis in a two-dimensional plot, the horizontal axis. In a three-dimensional plot, the X axis is the axis perpendicular to the Y-Z plane.
Y axis in a two-dimensional plot, the vertical axis. In a three-dimensional plot, the Y axis is the axis perpendicular to the X-Z plane.
Z axis in a three-dimensional plot, the axis perpendicular to the X-Y plane.

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