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SAS Companion for the OS/2 Environment

Producing Graphics

See SAS/GRAPH Software: Reference for full details about using SAS/GRAPH software. Also see Overview of Graphics Considerations for further details about using graphics and fonts with the SAS System under OS/2.

Producing Graphics on Your Display

In most cases, output is automatically displayed on your monitor when you run a SAS/GRAPH procedure; it is not necessary to specify a SAS/GRAPH device driver. Information about your graphics display is stored in an OS/2 information file and is automatically used by the SAS System during an interactive SAS session.

Here is a simple example of how to produce a graphic:

data hat;
   do x=-5 to 5 by .25;
      do y=-5 to 5 by .25;
proc g3d data=hat;
   plot y*x=z/ctop=red;
   title 'Cowboy Hat with G3D';
Cowboy Hat Procedure Output shows the output for this program:

Cowboy Hat Procedure Output


If you use the DEVICE= option in the GOPTIONS statement to route your graphics to a hardcopy device, and then you want to return to using your monitor to display graphics, you must specify a driver. Submit the following statement to display graphics output on your monitor:

goptions device=win;

You should also use the WIN device driver to produce graphics on your display when you run your SAS job in batch mode.

If you specify that your program output is to be displayed in HTML, your graphic is converted to a .GIF file and stored in the same folder as your SAS System data set. For more information, see The Complete Guide to the SAS Output Delivery System.

Printing Graphics

You can use two methods to print output from SAS/GRAPH:

After SAS prepares output for a printer (by using either OS/2 printer drivers or a SAS/GRAPH printer driver), the output is sent to the OS/2 printer, which then queues it for printing on the device of your choice. SAS/GRAPH Generic Printer Drivers Compared with SAS/GRAPH Native Printer Drivers illustrates how you can use the two sets of printer drivers within SAS/GRAPH to produce output for a given device.

SAS/GRAPH Generic Printer Drivers Compared with SAS/GRAPH Native Printer Drivers


The method that you choose depends on the output device that you are using; see Choosing between a SAS/GRAPH Native Driver and the OS2Pxxx Driver for more information. You can control both graphics printing methods by using either the Print and Print Setup dialog boxes or the SYSPRINT= option and the GOPTIONS DEVICE= statement.

Using the SAS/GRAPH Generic (OS2Pxxx) Drivers

To print a graphic by using the SAS/GRAPH generic device drivers with the OS/2 printer drivers:

  1. Select Print Setup from the File menu and verify that the Printer field in the Print Setup dialog box lists the correct OS/2 printer. You can use the Print Setup dialog box to select any printer that you have installed on OS/2. (To install new drivers and port combinations, use the WarpGuide, which you can access through the Assistance Center folder.)

    Alternatively, you can use the SYSPRINT system option to assign the destination printer. For example,

    options sysprint='HP LaserJet III';
    Note that you may assign only printer driver names that have been previously configured in OS/2.

  2. Run your SAS/GRAPH program with the following graphics option:

    The value of OS2Pxxx you specify depends on the type of output device that you use to print your graph:

    for black and white (monochrome) printers

    for grayscale printers

    for color printers

    for plotters.

The orientation of graphics output is determined by the following:

Note:   Graphics printing is affected by the margins that are specified in the Page Setup dialog box. If you modify the margins when printing graphics and your intention is to keep the graphics proportional, be sure the change the top and bottom margins by the same amount that you change the left and right margins.  [cautionend]

Using the SAS/GRAPH Native Printer Drivers

SAS/GRAPH native drivers are drivers that produce output in the native language of the target device. Examples of SAS/GRAPH native drivers include
PS produces Postscript output.
HPLJS3 produces output in the PCL5 language that is used by Hewlett-Packard LaserJet III printers.
HP7550 produces HPGL output that is used by Hewlett-Packard 7550 plotters.

After the SAS/GRAPH native printer driver has produced output in the native language of the target device, SAS then routes the output to the device that uses the OS/2 printer. The SAS System bypasses the OS/2 driver that is currently associated with the target device, but it does respect the destination that is specified in the Print Setup dialog box when deciding where to send the output.

To print a graph by using a SAS/GRAPH printer driver, run your SAS/GRAPH program with the following graphics options:

GOPTIONS DEVICE= driver-name;
where driver-name is the name of a valid SAS/GRAPH device driver. Consider this example,

goptions device=hpljs2;
This statement formats the graph for the Hewlett-Packard LaserJet Series II printer. You can view the complete list of SAS/GRAPH drivers by submitting the PROC GDEVICE statement.

To print a graph to a printer file (also called a graphics stream file, or GSF) instead of directly to a printer, use the GSFNAME option in the GOPTIONS statement and use a filename or fileref to specify where you want the output. For example:

filename graphout "graphpic.prn";
goptions gsfname=graphout gsfmode=replace

Printing and Previewing from the GRAPH Window

You can preview a graph that you create and, at the same time, format it for optimal display on the device of your choice. To preview the graph before you print it, run your SAS/GRAPH program with the following GOPTIONS statement:

where driver-name is either one of the OS2Pxxx drivers or a SAS/GRAPH native driver.

By specifying a target device, SAS/GRAPH can format the graph with colors and attributes that are appropriate for the target printer. To print the graph after it is displayed, select Print from the File menu.

Note:   If you do not specify a target device before you create the graph, SAS/GRAPH will prompt you (in the Print dialog box) for a device driver name when you attempt to print the graph that you are previewing. In most cases the OS2PRTM or OS2PRTC driver is specified by default. The graph colors, orientation, and sizing might not be optimal for the output device you specify, however.  [cautionend]

Choosing between a SAS/GRAPH Native Driver and the OS2Pxxx Driver

When deciding whether to use SAS/GRAPH native drivers or the OS2Pxxx series of drivers, consider such factors as the device that you are using and the type of output that you want to produce. Note the following specific considerations:

Importing Graphics from Other Applications

SAS/GRAPH lets you import bitmap and vector graphics that were created by other software packages. This provides these benefits:

You can import bitmap graphics into these SAS System windows:

The SAS System provides two ways to import bitmap graphics into SAS/GRAPH:

Pasting Graphics from the OS/2 Clipboard

If the tool that you use to create the source graphics is an OS/2 application, then you can use the OS/2 clipboard to copy the graphics to your SAS session as follows:

  1. From the application that you used to create the graphic, select the graphic and copy it to the clipboard. Use the copy procedures for your graphics tool.

  2. Switch to your SAS session (or start your SAS session, if it is not already running).

  3. With the SAS/GRAPH window active, select Paste from the Edit menu (or use the GPASTE command). The graphic is pasted into the SAS/GRAPH window.

Importing a Graphics File from within a SAS/GRAPH Window

SAS/GRAPH provides import filters to translate graphics files that were created in other applications to a format that you can use with the SAS System.

You can import graphics from other applications that produce files in any of the formats that are shown in Graphics Import File Formats.

Graphics Import File Formats
Graphics File Format File Extension
OS/2 bitmap BMP
OS/2 metafile MET
Device independent bitmap DIB
JPEG format JPG
graphic interchange format (GIF) GIF
tag image file format (TIFF) TIF
PC Paintbrush PCX
Truevision Targa TGA
Encapsulated PostScript Interchange (EPSI) PS
Portable Network Graphics PNG
Photo CD image PCD
Portable Pixmap PBM
X Window bitmap XBM
X Window dump XWD

To import bitmap graphics into SAS/GRAPH:

  1. Make the GRAPH window active, and then select Import Image... from the File menu.

  2. Use the Import Image dialog box to select the source directory and graphics file. Ensure that the Format field shows the correct source format; this indicates which import filter SAS/GRAPH will use. You can have the SAS System automatically detect the file format of the file to import by selecting AUTO as the Format. Click on [OK].

    Note:   Automatic file format detection through using AUTO does not detect the DIB file format  [cautionend]

You can also include IMAGE catalog entries in your graphs. For information about including IMAGE catalog entries, see SAS/GRAPH Software: Reference.

Exporting Graphics for Use with Other Applications

The SAS System provides the following methods of exporting graphics that were created in SAS/GRAPH for use with other word processing or desktop publishing packages, or for display on the Internet or on an intranet:

You can also use SAS/GRAPH to create GIF and VRML files for use with Web browsers, PDF files for use with the Adobe Acrobat reader, and many other useful types of graphics files. For more information about how to create these types of files, see SAS/GRAPH Software: Reference and the online Help for SAS/GRAPH.

Exporting a Graphic to a File from a SAS/GRAPH Window

SAS/GRAPH provides export filters to translate graphics that were generated in SAS/GRAPH into formats that you can use with other applications, such as spreadsheet and desktop publishing programs.

You can export graphics from SAS/GRAPH in any of the formats that are shown in Graphics Export File Formats.

Graphics Export File Formats
Graphics File Format File Extension
OS/2 bitmap BMP
OS/2 metafile MET
Device independent bitmap DIB
JPEG format JPG
graphic interchange format (GIF) GIF
tag image file format (TIFF) TIF
Adobe PostScript PS
Encapsulated PostScript Interchange (EPSI) PS
Portable Network Graphics PNG
Portable Pixmap PBM

To export a graph from the GRAPH window:

  1. Make the GRAPH window active and then select Export Image... from the File menu.

  2. In the Export Image dialog box, select the target file format.

  3. Specify the directory and filename for the exported graphic. Click on[OK].

For more information about exporting graphics to a SAS IMAGE catalog entry from the Image editor, see the online Help for SAS/GRAPH.

Pasting Graphics from SAS/GRAPH into other OS/2 Applications

A quick way to export graphics from the SAS System to another OS/2 application is to use the OS/2 clipboard. When you copy information from SAS/GRAPH to the clipboard, you can then paste that information into any application that accepts DIB or BMP input.

To copy information from SAS/GRAPH to the clipboard:

  1. From the GRAPH window, hold down the left mouse button and drag the mouse over the portion of the graph that you want to copy. A selection box marks off the selected area as you move the mouse. When you are finished, release the mouse button.

    If you do not select an area of the graph to copy, the next step will copy the entire graph to the clipboard.

  2. With the GRAPH window still active, press CTRL+C (or select Copy to Paste Buffer from the Edit menu).

This copies the graph to the clipboard. You can then return to the target application and paste the graph (typically by using the Paste or Paste Special options in the target OS/2 application). See the documentation for the target OS/2 application for more information about how to paste information from the clipboard.

Creating CGM Files for Export to Other Applications

You can export graphs from SAS/GRAPH to other graphics packages by using drivers that were developed specifically for those packages. When you use computer graphics metafiles (CGMs) as the medium of transport between packages, your graph retains its separate components so that you can independently edit and size it. The editing capabilities you can use depend on the target graphics package.

To create a CGM from SAS/GRAPH, set GOPTIONS as follows:

FILENAME fileref 'filename.CGM';
where CGMxxxx is the appropriate CGM driver for your target application, and filename.CGM is the name of the file that you want to create. CGM Drivers and Documentation for Popular Graphics Packages lists the graphics packages to which you can export CGMs, the appropriate drivers to use, and the SAS documents that describe how to export file and use them with the target application. You access these documents from SAS Institute's Technical Support Division on the SAS Institute Web site.

The driver names that are marked with an asterisk (*) are already provided with Version 8 of the SAS System. For each driver that is not provided, the corresponding document describes how to build the driver.

CGM Drivers and Documentation for Popular Graphics Packages
Package Suggested Driver Document
Aldus PageMaker CGMAPMA* TS-252F
Aldus Persuasion CGMAPSA* TS-252D
BPS 35 MM Express CGM35 TS-252
Borland Quattro Pro (Windows) CGMBQWC TS-252J
Borland Quattro Pro (DOS) CGMBQA* TS-252
Harvard Graphics 2.12 for DOS CGHHG TS-252
Harvard Graphics 3.0 for DOS CGMHG3A* TS-252A
Harvard Graphics for Windows CGMHGWA* TS-252C
Harvard Graphics 3.0 for Windows CGMHG3L TS-252T
ImageBuilder CGMIMG TS-252
Lotus Ami Pro 3.0 CGMAM3C* CGMAM3G CGMAM3M TS-252M
Lotus Ami Pro 2.0 CGMAMIA TS-252
Lotus Freelance for Windows 2.0 CGMFL2C* CGMFL2G CGMFL2M TS-252K
Lotus Freelance for Windows 1.0 CGMFLWA* TS-252
Lotus 1-2-3 4.0 CGM123C* TS-252N
Lotus 1-2-3 CGM123 TS-252
Lotus Office 97 CGMLOT97 CGMLT97P TS-252Y
Microsoft Word for Windows 6.0 CGMMW6C* CGMMW6G CGMMW6M TS-252L
Microsoft Word for Windows 2.0 CGMMWWC* TS-252B
Microsoft PowerPoint CGMMPPA TS-252E
Microsoft Office 97 CGMOFF97 CGMOF97P TS-252X
Polaroid CI3000 CI3000 TS-252
WordPerfect 5.2 for Windows CGMWPWA* TS-252
WordPerfect 6.0 for Windows (Beta) CGMWP6C CGMWP6G CGMWP6M TS-252O
WordPerfect 6.0A for Windows CGMWPGCA TS-252P
WordPerfect 6.1 Windows CGMWPGIL TS-252S
WordPerfect 6.0 for UNIX CGMWPUXL TS-252U
WordPerfect Presents for DOS CGMWPCA* CGMWPGA* CGMWPMA* TS-252G
Zenographics Pixie CGMPIX TS-252

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