Chapter Contents


SAS Companion for the OS/2 Environment

Working within Your SAS Session

Using the SAS Text Editor Windows

The SAS text editor windows (including Program Editor and NOTEPAD) work similarly to other OS/2 editors. Thus, you can edit your SAS code without learning how to use a new text editor.

Using Line Numbers

If you are familiar with the SAS Program Editor window under other operating environments such as OS/390 (formerly MVS), notice that under OS/2 line numbers are turned off by default. You can issue the NUMBERS ON command from the command bar to display line numbers in the Program Editor window.

You can also control line numbers by using the Editor Options dialog box when the Program Editor or NOTEPAD is the active window. To open the Editor Options dialog box:

  1. Type EDOP in the command bar or select


  2. Click on the down-arrow in the drop-down list box and select Text Editing Options.

  3. Select Nums, click the right mouse button, and select Modify.

  4. In the Value combo box, select either Yes or No and click on [OK].

Moving the Cursor

The cursor movement keys (arrow keys, PgUp, PgDn, and so on) function the same way in SAS text windows as they do in other OS/2 applications.

Pressing the CTRL key with the left arrow key (word left) or right arrow key (word right) causes the cursor to move one word at a time. When you advance through text, the word-left and word-right commands stop at the end of the text on a line and at the beginning of the first word on a new line. You can move to the top of a file by pressing CTRL+PgUp or to the bottom of a file by pressing CTRL+PgDn.

Pressing the Home key causes the cursor to move to the beginning of the current line unless the command line is active. Pressing the Home key when the command line is active causes the cursor to toggle between the current cursor position in the text and the command line. The F11 key moves the cursor to the command line. You can toggle the command line on and off by using the COMMAND command or by selecting Command line in the Preferences dialog box General page.

Using Tabs

Many text editors retain tab characters, while others expand tabs into space characters. The SAS Program Editor window expands tabs into space characters. Pressing the TAB key inserts spaces and moves any text to the right of the cursor.

Understanding Line Breaks

Conceptually, line breaks are at the end of the line rather than at the beginning. Pressing ENTER creates a line break. To delete a line break, press the Backspace key at the beginning of a line or press the Delete key at the end of the line.

Selecting Text

You can use the mouse or the Shift key in combination with the cursor movement keys to select text. The marking of an area of text continues until you release the mouse button or release the Shift key. To select all of the text in the active window, select Select All from the Edit menu. The following are several advanced text selection methods:

If characters are selected and you start typing text, the marked area is replaced with the new text. This occurs even if you have moved the cursor away from the marked area. For information about marking and copying text with a mouse, see Using the Clipboard.

To unmark text, click the left mouse button in the window. Alternatively, you can unmark text by selecting Deselect from the Edit menu, or you can press the ESC key. You can also unmark text using the up, down, left, and right arrow navigation keys if Enable unmarking with navigation keys is selected in the Preferences dialog box Edit page. Entering the WNAVKEYUNMARK ON in the command bar also enables unmarking with the arrow navigational keys.

Deleting Text

The Delete key deletes the currently selected text; otherwise, it deletes the character to the right of the cursor. To delete from the cursor to the end of the current line, press ALT+DELETE. To delete from the cursor to the end of the current word, press CTRL+DELETE. To delete from the cursor to the start of the current word, press CTRL + BACKSPACE.

You can also use the Edit menu to delete text. To delete all text in the window, select Clear All. To delete only selected text, select Clear. To delete selected text and copy that text to the OS/2 clipboard, select Cut.

Dragging and Dropping Text

You can drag and drop selected text between the following locations:.

Summary of Text Drag-and-Drop Possibilities
Drag text from And drop it to
any SAS text window another SAS window that supports text editing (such as Program Editor)
any SAS text window another OS/2 application that supports dragging and dropping of text
an OS/2 application that supports text drag and drop any SAS window that supports editing
OS/2 Drives View (text file item) any SAS window that supports editing

To drag and drop text from one window to another:

  1. Arrange your windows, if necessary, so that both the source and target windows are visible on the display.

  2. Select text from the source window.

  3. Click and hold the right mouse button with the pointer on the selected text.

  4. With the mouse button still pressed, drag the text to the target window.

  5. Move the mouse pointer to the position where you want to insert the text. (If you plan to just submit the text as SAS code for processing, position the mouse pointer anywhere in the window.)

  6. Release the mouse button. The text is either included at the point where you positioned the cursor, or it is submitted to the SAS System for processing. (The default action depends on the type of the target window.)

Here is a summary of drag-and-drop actions that are available for the possible target windows in SAS:

Data Target Default
text SAS text editor move
text from Log, Output Program Editor, SAS text editor copy
file Program Editor copy
file Other SAS text editor windows not applicable
file Log,

Output windows


The actions that occur when you drag text out of a SAS window into another OS/2 application depend on the target application. In most cases, dragging and dropping text between SAS and other applications actually moves the text from one window to another (that is, the text is cut from one window and placed in the other).

You can change that behavior by applying a drag-modifier--a key that you press while you drag and drop. To copy text from one window to another (instead of moving it), press and hold the CTRL key before and during the drag-and-drop action. When you release the mouse button to drop the text, release the CTRL key as well.

Using Rich Text Format (RTF) Text

When you copy text out of a SAS window to the clipboard and paste it into the window of another application, the text retains all of the format information that it had in SAS (except for color) if the target window accepts RTF formatting. For example, the OS/2 System Editor does not preserve formatting, but the OS/2 Enhanced Editor and many other word processors do. The same is true when you drag text out of a SAS window and drop it in another application window.

Saving Program Editor Files Using Autosave

To be sure that you do not lose any of your work in the Program Editor, the SAS System can automatically save your files at an interval that you specify. The interval can range from 0 (Autosave off) to 480 minutes. The default interval is 10 minutes. To enable or disable Autosave and set the interval, select

Edit page

You can also use the WAUTOSAVE command to enable, disable, and set the interval. WAUTOSAVE INTERVAL=minutes will turn on Autosave using minutes as the interval.

For more information about the Autosave feature, see Edit Preferences and WAUTOSAVE.

Understanding Unique Features of the Editor

The following features of the SAS text editor window are different from the standard features of other editors that are commonly used in the OS/2 operating environment:

Using the Clipboard

The OS/2 clipboard enables you to exchange text and graphics between applications. You can also submit SAS code that is stored on the clipboard. The clipboard uses operating environment memory as an intermediate storage buffer for exchanging text and graphics. With the clipboard, you can move text between

The SAS System under OS/2 communicates with the clipboard by using these formats:

SAS text format
preserves the text and color attributes between SAS sessions. This format is understood by the SAS System, but not by other OS/2 applications.

OS/2 text format
is understood by most OS/2 applications.

RTF text format
encapsulates text font and highlighting attributes when you are copying text between applications that both support RTF format. SAS can cut and copy text only in RTF format; you cannot paste RTF text into a SAS window.

bitmap format
is for graphics and for windows in SAS/ASSIST software. This format is understood by most OS/2 applications.

metafile format
is used in many SAS applications that support the GSTORE command, such as the Graphics Editor in SAS/GRAPH software, the SAS/QC ISHIKAWA procedure, and SAS/INSIGHT software. The metafile format that is supported for clipboard operations has a file extension of MET and provides more information about the image than about the bitmap format.

DIB (device independent bitmap) format
is used with color bitmap files. When a bitmap is stored in the DIB format, colors map correctly from one device to another.

These formats enable you to copy text and SAS bitmapped information (for example, from a graphic) to another application. You can also use the Print Screen and ALT+PRINT SCREEN keys to copy information from your SAS session to the clipboard. Pressing PRINT SCREEN places the entire display in bitmap form on the clipboard.

You can use the clipboard only if both the source and destination applications provide support for the clipboard facility and for the format that you are using. Note that whereas some operating environments allow multiple paste buffers, the SAS System under OS/2 uses the OS/2 clipboard, which is a single buffer.

Selecting and Copying Text

For windows that contain text, such as the Program Editor, NOTEPAD, Log, Output, and KEYS windows, you can hold down either the left mouse button or ALT + the left mouse button and drag the mouse to mark the area that you want to cut or copy. Holding down the left mouse button when you are selecting multiple lines selects whole lines of text. Holding down ALT + the left mouse button lets you select a rectangular block or column of text. The text area is immediately marked in reverse video while you are dragging the mouse. To extend the selection of text area, use SHIFT + left mouse button. Release the mouse button when you have included all the text you want to copy.

To copy marked text to the clipboard, do one of the following:

To paste text that is stored on the clipboard, position the cursor in a text area in a window and do one of the following:

The text from the clipboard is pasted to the area that you indicate. If there is already an area of selected text within the target window, the selected text is replaced with contents of the clipboard. You can paste text only into SAS windows that accept text input, such as the Program Editor or the NOTEPAD.

Selecting and Copying in Nontext Windows

For windows such as the GRAPH and SAS/ASSIST windows, an area is marked by a box, not by reverse video. The box indicates that the area that you are marking is in bitmap format. You cannot scroll in these windows while you are marking text. After you finish marking an area, you can copy it to the clipboard. If the window that you are working in has no Edit pop-up menu, you can use the following keys to perform the copy and paste functions:
CTRL+INS copies the selection to the clipboard.
SHIFT + INS pastes the contents of the clipboard.

Using the GSTORE Command

Both the SAS/QC ISHIKAWA procedure and the Graphics Editor support the storing of metafile graphics format as well as bitmap formats on the clipboard. In the Graphics Editor, the area that you mark is enclosed in a box, and you cannot scroll as you mark. Use the GSTORE command to store the currently marked area (the entire screen when used with the ISHIKAWA procedure) on the OS/2 clipboard in device-dependent bitmap (BMP) graphical data formats. You can also select Copy from the Edit menu to store the marked area on the clipboard.

Pasting Bitmapped Information into Your SAS Session

You can paste bitmaps into the Graphics Editor and Image Editor to import graphics. For more information, see Importing Graphics from Other Applications.

Submitting SAS Code from the Clipboard

The SAS System under OS/2 enables you to use the OS/2 clipboard to submit SAS code. This feature can be used to copy or cut SAS code from another application, such as the OS/2 Enhanced Editor or another text editor, and submit it to the SAS System for execution. This is also convenient for submitting the sample programs that are available in the SAS System Help.

To submit SAS code stored on the clipboard, select Submit Clipboard from the Run menu with the Program Editor window active. Alternatively, you can issue the GSUBMIT command from the command bar as follows:

gsubmit buf=default

The GSUBMIT command can be used to submit SAS code that is stored on the clipboard even if the Program Editor window is not the active window (or if it is closed). If you use the GSUBMIT command often, you may want to define an icon for it in the toolbar, or assign the GSUBMIT command to a function key. For more information about how to define toolbar buttons, see Customizing the Toolbar.

Creating Text Highlighting and Special Characters

Special Character Attributes

Both SAS NOTEPAD and SAS/AF allow you to use extended color and highlight attributes for text. To access these attributes, press the ESC key and the appropriate letter or number to turn a color or attribute on and off. With this feature, you can alter the color or attributes of entire lines or individual words or letters. Valid colors and attributes, as well as the keys you use to implement them, are listed in Extended Color Key Sequences and Extended Attribute Key Sequences. Color names are not case-sensitive.

Extended Color Key Sequences
Color Key
ESC+A Gray ESC+N Brown
ESC+B Blue ESC+O Orange
ESC+C Cyan ESC+P Pink
ESC+G Green ESC+R Red
ESC+K Black ESC+W White
ESC+M Magenta ESC+Y Yellow

Extended Attribute Key Sequences
ESC+0 Turns off all highlighting attributes
ESC+2 Turns on the underline attribute
ESC+3 Turns on the reverse-video attribute

Alternate ASCII Characters

If you want to create alternate ASCII characters such as foreign language characters, you can use the ALT key in combination with the ASCII character code. Use the numeric keypad with NumLock on to enter the character code. For a list of ASCII character codes and instructions about how to use the ALT key sequences, see your OS/2 documentation.

Issuing SAS Commands

Using Menus to Issue Commands

Many commands are already assigned to menu items for the windows in which they apply. For example, selecting Submit from the Run menu for the Program Editor window has the same effect as typing submit at the Program Editor command line. The items in the menu bar and pop-up window vary depending on the active window.

Using the Command Line to Issue Commands

If you want to use the command line to issue commands, select Command line from the Preferences dialog box View page. (For more information, see Setting Session Preferences.) This action places a command line in each SAS window. You can then type commands on the command line in the window in which the commands apply. (For example, the INCLUDE command is valid in the Program Editor window, but not in the Log window.)

Using the Command Bar or the Command Box to Issue Commands

The command bar and the command box offer a central location from which you can submit any SAS command, as long as the command is valid for the active window. If you enter a command that is not valid for the active window, SAS issues an error message.

By default, SAS displays a command bar at the top of the main SAS window. You can also undock the command bar and use it in a separate window. To undock the command bar:

  1. Position the cursor over the command bar (not in the text field)

  2. Click the right mouse button and select Docked.

To dock the command bar again:

  1. Position the cursor over the command box (not in the text field)

  2. Click the right mouse button, and select Docked, or double-click the left mouse button in the command box title bar.

To move your cursor to the command bar, press the F11 key. Pressing F11 when you are using the command box docks the command box and places the cursor in the command bar.

The SAS System stores the commands that you enter in the command bar from session to session, and you can easily retrieve previously entered commands by selecting them from the drop-down list. The default number of commands to save is 15, but you can save from zero to 50 commands. SAS can store the commands either in order of the most recently used or in order of the most frequently used. To store the commands by the most recently used, select Sort commands by most recently used in the Customize Tools Toolbar page. When this option is not selected, the commands are sorted by the most frequently used.

You can also retrieve previously entered commands by starting to type them in the command bar. If Use AutoComplete is selected in the Customized Tools Toolbar page, the SAS System completes the command that best matches the command that you are typing.

You can select your preferences for the command bar by using the Customize Tools dialog box (described in Setting General Toolbar Preferences). To open the Customize Tool dialog box, issue the TOOLEDIT command (described in TOOLEDIT) or select


Using the Toolbar to Issue Commands

The toolbar provides a convenient way to issue commands that you use often. To issue a command by using the toolbar, simply click on the icon that represents the command that you need. To learn which tools perform what commands, position the mouse pointer over a tool briefly to display the screen tip for that tool.

When you start the SAS System, the toolbar displays at the top of the main SAS windows. You can detach the toolbar and use it in a separate window by

  1. positioning the cursor over the toolbar (not over a tool)

  2. clicking the right mouse button and selecting Docked.

You can dock the toolbar again by

  1. positioning the cursor over the toolbar (not over a tool)

  2. clicking the right mouse button and selecting Docked or double-clicking the left mouse button in the toolbar title bar.

You can add or change the tools that are defined in the toolbar. For more information, see Customizing the Toolbar.

Changing the SAS Current Folder

The current folder is the operating environment folder in which many SAS commands and actions are valid. The path to the SAS current folder is displayed in the status line at the bottom of the main SAS window. By default, the SAS System uses the folder that is designated by the SASUSER system option in the SAS configuration file as the current folder when you begin your SAS session. You can specify a different default current folder by changing the Working directory field in the Properties Program page for the SAS program or by specifying the SASINITIALFOLDER system option during SAS invocation. For more information on the SASINITIALFOLDER, see SASINITIALFOLDER.

Interactively Selecting a New Current Folder

To change the SAS current folder during your SAS session, double-click on the current folder in the status line. Then use the Change Folder dialog box (shown in Change Folder Dialog Box) to select a new working folder.

Change Folder Dialog Box


If you organize your files so that each project has its own folder, then the Change Folder dialog box allows you to quickly switch between projects. As you select different projects, the dialog box retains the directories that you select in the Folder list box.

Using SAS Statements to Change the Working Folder

You can change the working drive and folder by submitting the change directory (CD or CHDIR) command with the X statement in SAS. The SAS System intercepts the change directory command and then changes drive commands and changes its working folder.

For example, the following statements change the working folder for your SAS session to the MYDATA folder and G:\SALES\JUNE folder, respectively:

x 'cd \mydata';
x 'cd g:\sales\june';

To simply change the working drive, you can submit a change drive command (the drive letter followed by a colon and enclosed in single quotes) such as the following:

x 'a:';

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