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Specialized Control Charts

Calculating Probability Limits

The OUTLIMITS= option saves the control limits from the chart in Figure 49.25 in a SAS data set named DELAYLIM, which is listed in Figure 49.26.

time recnum ESTIMATE 2 .002699796 3 1.77008 2.91038 4.05068 0.38010
Figure 49.26: Control Limits for Standard Chart from the Data Set CALLS

The control limits can be replaced with the corresponding percentiles from a fitted lognormal distribution. The equation for the lognormal density function is

 f(x) = \frac{1}{x \sqrt{2\pi} \sigma}
 \exp ( - \frac{(\log(x) - \zeta)^2}{2 \sigma^2} )
 & x \gt 0
where \sigma denotes the shape parameter and \zetadenotes the scale parameter.

The following statements use the CAPABILITY procedure to fit a lognormal model and superimpose the fitted density on a histogram of the data, shown in Figure 49.27:

   title 'Lognormal Fit for Delay Distribution';
   proc capability data=calls noprint;
      histogram time /
         lognormal(threshold=2.3 color=yellow w=2)
         cfill  = vigb
         cframe = ligr
         outfit = lnfit
         nolegend ;
      inset n = 'Number of Calls'
         lognormal( sigma = 'Shape' (4.2)
                    zeta  = 'Scale' (5.2)
                    theta ) / pos    = ne
                              ctext  = black
                              cfill  = ywh;
      label time  = 'Answering Delay (minutes)';

sabnorm4.gif (7598 bytes)

Figure 49.27: Distribution of Delays

Parameters of the fitted distribution and results of goodness-of-fit tests are saved in the data set LNFIT, which is listed in Figure 49.28. The large p-values for the goodness-of-fit tests are evidence that the lognormal model provides a good fit.

time LNORMAL 2.3 -0.68910 0.64110 4.2 0.34854 0.47465 0.058737 0.40952 0.092223 0.15
Figure 49.28: Parameters of Fitted Lognormal Model in the Data Set LNFIT

The following statements replace the control limits in DELAYLIM with limits computed from percentiles of the fitted lognormal model. The 100\alpha\!^{{\scriptsize th}}percentile of the lognormal distribution is P_{\alpha} = \exp(\sigma \Phi^{-1}(\alpha) + \zeta),where \Phi^{-1} denotes the inverse standard normal cumulative distribution function. The SHEWHART procedure constructs an X chart with the modified limits, displayed in Figure 49.29.

   data delaylim;
      merge delaylim lnfit;
      drop _sigmas_ ;
      _lcli_ = _locatn_ + exp(_scale_+probit(0.5*_alpha_)*_shape1_);
      _ucli_ = _locatn_ + exp(_scale_+probit(1-0.5*_alpha_)*_shape1_);
      _mean_ = _locatn_ + exp(_scale_+0.5*_shape1_*_shape1_);
   symbol v=dot c=yellow;
   title 'Lognormal Control Limits for Delays';
   proc shewhart data=calls limits=delaylim;
      irchart time*recnum /
         rtmplot   = schematic
         cboxfill  = vlib
         cframe    = vigb
         cinfill   = vlib
         cboxes    = yellow
         cconnect  = yellow
         nochart2 ;
      label recnum = 'Record Number'
            time   = 'Delay in minutes' ;

sabnorm6.gif (7637 bytes)

Figure 49.29: Adjusted Control Limits for Delays

Clearly the process is in control, and the control limits (particularly the lower limit) are appropriate for the data. The particular probability level \alpha=0.0027associated with these limits is somewhat immaterial, and other values of \alpha such as 0.001 or 0.01 could be specified with the ALPHA= option in the original IRCHART statement.

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Copyright © 1999 by SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. All rights reserved.