The GAGE Application

## Average and Range Method

The average and range method is widely used in industry because its calculations can be done by hand. It measures both repeatability and reproducibility for a measurement system.

All calculations described here are based upon a specified multiple of , where the multiple can be 4, 5.15, or 6. Figure A.3 shows a sample gage report created with the GAGE application using the average and range method.

The measure of repeatability (or equipment variation), denoted by EV, is calculated as where is the average range and K1 is the adjustment factor Average and Range Method Test ID: Gasket Performed By: Date: 09/18/98 John Smith Part No. & Name: Gasket Characteristics: Specification: 0.6-1.0 mm Gage Name: Thickness Gage No.: X-2034 Gage Type: 0-10 mm MEASUREMENT UNIT ANALYSIS % PROCESS VARIATION Repeatability EV = 0.1443 % EV = 15.33 % Reproducibility AV = 0.1516 % AV = 16.11 % Gage R&R R&R = 0.2093 % R&R = 22.24 % Part Variation PV = 0.9177 % PV = 97.50 % Total Variation TV = 0.9413 Results are based upon predicting 5.15 sigma. (99.0% of the area under the normal distribution curve) 
Figure A.3: Average and Range Method Sample Report

The quantity d2 (Duncan 1974, Table M) depends on the number of trials used to calculate a single range. In the GAGE application, the number of trials can vary from 2 to 4. Use of d2 is valid when ; otherwise, the GAGE application uses d2* (Duncan 1974, Table D3), which is based on the number of ranges calculated from #operators ×#parts and on the number of trials.

The measure of reproducibility (or appraiser variation), denoted by AV, is calculated as where is the difference between the maximum operator average and the minimum operator average, K2 is the adjustment factor n is the number of parts, and r is the number of trials. Reproducibility is contaminated by gage error and is adjusted by subtracting (EV)2/nr. The quantity d2* (Duncan 1974, Table D3) depends on the number of operators used to calculate a single range. In the GAGE application, the number of operators can vary from 1 to 4. When there is only one operator, reproducibility is set to zero.

The measure of repeatability and reproducibility, denoted by R&R, is calculated as Part-to-part variation, denoted by PV, is calculated as

PV = Rp ×K3
where Rp is the range of part averages and K3 is the adjustment factor Here the quantity d2* (Duncan 1974, Table D3) depends on the number of parts used to calculate a single range. In the GAGE application, the number of parts can vary from 2 to 15.

Total variation, denoted by TV, is based on gage R&R and part-to-part variation. The measures of repeatability, reproducibility, gage R&R, part variation, and total variation are shown in Figure A.3 under the heading "MEASUREMENT UNIT ANALYSIS." The right-hand side of the report shows the "% PROCESS VARIATION" analysis, which compares the gage factors to total variation. The percent of total variation accounted for by each factor is calculated as follows: Note that the sum of these percentages does not equal 100%. You can use these percentages to determine whether the measurement system is acceptable for its intended application.

Instead of percent of process variation, your analysis may be based on percent of tolerance. For this you must specify a tolerance value. Then %EV, %AV, %R&R, and %PV are calculated by substituting the tolerance value for TV (the denominator) in the preceding formulas. A sample report with "% TOLERANCE ANALYSIS" is shown in Figure A.4.

What is considered acceptable for %R&R? Barrentine (1991) gives the following guidelines:

 10% or less excellent 11% to 20% adequate 21% to 30% marginally acceptable over 30% unacceptable

In general, interpretation may be guided by local standards.

  Average and Range Method Test ID: Gasket Performed By: Date: 09/18/98 John Smith Part No. & Name: Gasket Characteristics: Specification: 0.6-1.0 mm Gage Name: Thickness Gage No.: X-2034 Gage Type: 0-10 mm Tolerance: 0.4 MEASUREMENT UNIT ANALYSIS % TOLERANCE ANALYSIS Repeatability EV = 0.1443 % EV = 36.08 % Reproducibility AV = 0.1516 % AV = 37.91 % Gage R&R R&R = 0.2093 % R&R = 52.34 % Part Variation PV = 0.9177 % PV = 229.43 % Total Variation TV = 0.9413 Results are based upon predicting 5.15 sigma. (99.0% of the area under the normal distribution curve) 
Figure A.4: Average and Range Method with % Tolerance Analysis