## Missing Values

Observations with all missing values
are excluded from the analysis.
If you specify the NOMISS option, observations
with any missing values are excluded.
Observations with missing
values cannot be cluster seeds.
The distance between an observation with missing values
and a cluster seed is obtained by computing the squared
distance based on the nonmissing values, multiplying by
the ratio of the number of variables, *n*, to the number of variables
having nonmissing values, *m*, and taking the square root:

where

The summation is taken over variables with nonmissing values.
The IMPUTE option fills in missing values in the OUT= output data set.

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