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The NPAR1WAY Procedure

Example 47.2: The Exact Wilcoxon Two-Sample Test

Researchers conducted an experiment to compare the effects of two stimulants. Thirteen randomly selected subjects received the first stimulant and six randomly selected subjects received the second stimulant. The reaction times (in minutes) were measured while the subjects were under the influence of the stimulants.

The following SAS statements create the data set React, which contains the observed reaction times for each stimulant. The variable Stim represents Stimulant 1 or 2. The variable Time contains the reaction times observed for subjects under the stimulant.

   data React;
      input Stim Time @@;
   1 1.94   1 1.94   1 2.92   1 2.92   1 2.92   1 2.92   1 3.27
   1 3.27   1 3.27   1 3.27   1 3.70   1 3.70   1 3.74
   2 3.27   2 3.27   2 3.27   2 3.70   2 3.70   2 3.74

PROC NPAR1WAY tests the null hypothesis that there is no difference between the effects of the two stimulants against an alternative hypothesis that stimulant 1 has smaller reaction times than stimulant 2. The WILCOXON option specifies that Wilcoxon scores are to be used. The CLASS statement specifies that the variable Stim determines the classes. The VAR statement identifies Time as the response variable. The EXACT option requests the exact p-values. Since the sample size is small, the normal approximation may not be completely accurate, and it is appropriate to compute the exact test.

   proc npar1way wilcoxon data=React;
      class Stim;
      var Time;

Output 47.2.1: Results of the Wilcoxon Two-Sample Test

The NPAR1WAY Procedure

Wilcoxon Scores (Rank Sums) for Variable Time
Classified by Variable Stim
Stim N Sum of
Under H0
Std Dev
Under H0
1 13 110.50 130.0 11.004784 8.500
2 6 79.50 60.0 11.004784 13.250
Average scores were used for ties.

Wilcoxon Two-Sample Test
Statistic (S) 79.5000
Normal Approximation  
Z 1.7265
One-Sided Pr > Z 0.0421
Two-Sided Pr > |Z| 0.0843
t Approximation  
One-Sided Pr > Z 0.0507
Two-Sided Pr > |Z| 0.1014
Exact Test  
One-Sided Pr >= S 0.0527
Two-Sided Pr >= |S - Mean| 0.1054
Z includes a continuity correction of

Kruskal-Wallis Test
Chi-Square 3.1398
DF 1
Pr > Chi-Square 0.0764

Output 47.2.1 displays the results of the Wilcoxon two-sample test. The Wilcoxon statistic equals 79.50. Since this value is greater than 60.0, the expected value under the null hypothesis, PROC NPAR1WAY displays the right-sided p-values. The one-sided exact p-value equals 0.0527, which is not significant at the 0.05 level. The normal approximation yields a one-sided p-value of 0.0421, which is significant at the 0.05 level. Thus, the normal approximation may result in rejection of the null hypothesis, while the exact test may result in acceptance.

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